Black Holes can erase the past, with no future predetermined.

From a philosophical perspective I do not follow the purely deterministic Universe and/or the block universe which asserts that time runs from the past as does the future, therefor there is no essential moment in time and one cannot detach now-time from past and future events, as it is an accumulation of past and futures that have been all predetermined – which make up our observations of the self and the Universe around us.  These theorized assertions started with Isaac Newton which were later transfused to Albert Einstein who was able to formulate the equations of Special Relativity, which in turn began to fuse and synchronize the earlier observations of the Universe into what Einstein was able to portray in detailed and precise equations that we live in a deterministic Universal structure.  The problem with that theory, which, from an explanation of any current physicists (who subscribe to the deterministic and block Universe theory as decreed by Einstein).  Is that we still cannot explain Black Holes.  A pet hate of the famed physicist, who didn’t believe they should exist at all.   As their very existence in what we deem within an observable Universe have the potential to rewrite all known physics.

Article from Science Daily https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/02/180221091334.htm

In the real world, your past uniquely determines your future. If a physicist knows how the universe starts out, she can calculate its future for all time and all space.

But a UC Berkeley mathematician has found some types of black holes in which this law breaks down. If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures.

Such claims have been made in the past, and physicists have invoked “strong cosmic censorship” to explain it away. That is, something catastrophic — typically a horrible death — would prevent observers from actually entering a region of spacetime where their future was not uniquely determined. This principle, first proposed 40 years ago by physicist Roger Penrose, keeps sacrosanct an idea — determinism — key to any physical theory. That is, given the past and present, the physical laws of the universe do not allow more than one possible future.”

Using the hypothetical ‘Charged’ non rotating Black Hole theorem as a benchmark to calculate against what is already known as rotating black holes.

…Admittedly, he said, charged black holes are unlikely to exist, since they’d attract oppositely charged matter until they became neutral. However, the mathematical solutions for charged black holes are used as proxies for what would happen inside rotating black holes, which are probably the norm. Hintz argues that smooth, rotating black holes, called Kerr-Newman-de Sitter black holes, would behave the same way.

“That is upsetting, the idea that you could set out with an electrically charged star that undergoes collapse to a black hole, and then Alice travels inside this black hole and if the black hole parameters are sufficiently extremal, it could be that she can just cross the Cauchy horizon, survives that and reaches a region of the universe where knowing the complete initial state of the star, she will not be able to say what is going to happen,” Hintz said. “It is no longer uniquely determined by full knowledge of the initial conditions. That is why it’s very troublesome.

 

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The Ceres “Pyramid”

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The dwarf planet Ceres discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi in 1596, a Catholic priest from the Academy of Palermo, described Ceres as a slow moving comet, he later thought that there was something vastly more interesting (although not sure what its eventual classification would be) about this small “star”.  Later observations by fellow astronomers of the time had realigned Piazzi’s assertion that Ceres orbits between Mars and Jupiter’s trajectory, therefore it was not seen as a comet.  It was later classified as a small planet (or dwarf planet) of our Solar System.

In 2007 the NASA spacecraft DAWN was launched to observe the so called proto planets Vesta and Ceres, honing its sights on Ceres in 2015 the probe was able to capture the amazing details of this Dwarf Planet, more so the illuminated salt deposits (crystallized sodium carbonate) and the now infamous Pyramid of Ceres known as Ahuna Mons. Which shows the hallmarks of a volcanic structure (not alien).  My amateurish guess is that it will erupt at some point, disperse its internal contents of evaporated ice in a climatic spasm.

Stephen Hawking. 14th March 2018

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You have transcended.  Left for all, the knowledge that is pure of the human endurance.  The light in the darkness, in this life, within the cosmos.  It is eternal.  Such is the human being, unique, fragile.  Strong and weak, brave and fearful.  Our bliss and loss.  To live and to become, to learn and create.  To conquer our fears and to be strong, we overcome what weakens us,  so that we are significant in this Universe, as it is ours to understand.  But never to grasp.   It is when we let go and fall into the oceans of knowledge.  We become one within.  We become fearless.  

As we return to the original state.

To dream.

Renew.

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Adrian Glass

 

Small to micro satellites lead the new Space-race mixed with unauthorized launches.

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(A satellite the size of a showbox.  Image from Bloomberg)

As discussed in my article The soon-to-be commercial ‘Space Race’ may entail that more junk will be sent into Space the launch of a billionaire’s very expensive electric car, that in reality an environmental conscious ‘poor’ people (that is pretty much everyone) may not be able to afford to ween off the barbarism of the Middle East and revel in an environmentalist euphoria in support of  the electric car.  The space car at this point, although it was never intended to hit Mars, in its ad hoc and irresponsible advertising stunt, is on its way to the asteroid belts of our Solar System.  It will be destroyed at some point (via the possible trillions of asteroids in those regions), as the Cosmos in its design,  will attempt to remodel anything of weak design, that may have formed from intelligent life.   A remodeling that eventually turns it into a space debris or better known as “junk”

So, with my critique of childish superficiality of utilizing space as an advertising stunt with what could have been sent into Space (monuments of human endurance) was missed on this occasion.

The new Space race which has begun in gusto not seen since the first superpower space race that occurred within the last cold war over fifty years ago.  In this flux of digital connectivity with its Potemkin villages, the assumption could be viewed at times that all is well.  It’s not.  We have a new cold war which entails that there is also a new nuke arms race erringly similar to to the past.   Space,  that is also considered cold war territory, which in turn has the interests of all the major superpowers to have a dominance over, thus, with SpaceX leading the charge in its ability to deliver anything into outer space, more so to our very crowded lower and upper atmospheres.  Private Space companies will also offer the service, this may extend to security contract firms who are developing smaller and more advanced communication satellites.  A space race to build Space-internet networks, that could, say in a major conflict on Earth, be the last bastion of communication and global positioning systems.

Except, as noted in my previous article.  This will lead to a further deregulation of the Space industry, that will lead to increases in the amount of unauthorized launches into space of various communication satellites from private companies.

From the Register article 9th March 2018

The Federal Communication Commission (FCC) has pulled permission from Silicon Valley startup Swarm Technologies to launch four satellites into space after what it says was an “apparent unauthorized launch” back in January.

According to IEEE Spectrum, that unauthorized launch consisted of four experimental satellites that the FCC had decided were too small to be noticed in space – and hence pose an unacceptable risk of collision – but which the company may have launched anyway, using a rocket based in India.

The federal regulator has sent a stern letter [PDF] to Swarm withdrawing its permission to launch four new, larger version of its “SpaceBee” satellites while it looks into events.

“The grant for STA 0026‐EX‐ST‐2018 has been set aside and is now in a pending status for further review,” an email from the head of the FCC’s Experimental Licensing Branch, Anthony Serafini, to Swarm’s owners reads. “The International Bureau requested that the grant be set aside in order to permit assessment of the impact of the applicant’s apparent unauthorized launch and operation of four satellites, and related statements and representations, on its qualifications to be a Commission licensee. “

The launch under scrutiny carried a range of satellites but while Indian space agency ISRO lists all those satellites and their owners, the four “two-way satellite communications and data relay” devices in question are anonymous.

also

…The idea behind the mini-satellites – which the company proudly calls “the world’s smallest two-way communications satellites” – is to create an internet-of-things network in outer space.

Swarm envisions many, smaller and cheaper satellites circling the globe and providing tracking for billions of devices on the ground. The National Science Foundation has even given the company grants to pursue its plans.

The company is run by people with an impressive track record of space-related engineering, and, according to the space biz, several very large corporations and the US military have expressed an interest.

The soon-to-be commercial ‘Space Race’ may entail that more junk will be sent into Space.

 

In my article (Feb 8th 2018) “Is the ‘new’ Space Race and exploration now becoming an Absurdity”  it was referenced, as a point of view, that the newly manifested Space race may eventuate into an absurd situation as the all out commercialization of space begins in earnest – after the successful launch of the Falcon heavy launch rocket, but more so Elon Musk’s promotional stunt in sending a $200,000 electrical car into space.   With fears emerging from astrobiologists and other scientists that the Tesla ‘Starman’ car is riddled with Earth bacteria, please also refer to my May 16 2017 article  “Planetary Protection” Advocacy groups may cause more damage than good.”  These fears may also be overblown, with most planets in our Solar System hostile to all life including bacterial, particularly Mars (unless buried deep into the crust of the planet) due to extreme Ultraviolet radiation.   It is more concerning of the complete deregulation of private space programs which maybe in the line of sight for the Trump administration, to open up space as a broad private enterprise, which will remove aspects of specific regulation for space exploration, that in turn may lead to more reckless aspects within the private space programs.  This maybe the first step in the eventual funding cuts to not only NASA but the International Space Station.  The fears of Earth borne bacterial contamination to other planets, in my opinion, is not high on the list of space exploration concerns.

So, the recklessness of ‘companies’ all lining up to be part of the new Space race means more junk littered around the Earth, which will remain a threatening aspect to space programs and future exploration within our Solar System.

From the BBC Feb 2018  article re: Space Rubbish

In early February 2018 in Vienna, during the United Nations’ 55th Session of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Liou presented an update on the space debris environment and the US space agency’s operations and research. In 2017 alone, 86 launches around the world placed more than 400 spacecraft into orbit around the Earth.

The total amount of material in Earth orbit is more than 7,600 tonnes,” Liou says. “About 23,000 large objects are being tracked by the US Strategic Command’s Space Surveillance Network (SSN). In addition, there are tens of millions or more debris too small to be tracked by the SSN but still large enough to threaten human spaceflight and robotic missions…

Also from the same article

“…The amount of debris escalated sharply in 2007 when China deliberately destroyed its Fengyun-1C weather satellite as part of an anti-satellite device test. Two years later an American Iridium 33 communications satellite collided with a spent Russian Cosmos 2251 spacecraft. Both these incidents will have ramifications for some time.

Last year, Nasa was involved in 21 collision avoidance manoeuvres by uncrewed spacecraft. Four were to avoid debris from Fengyun-1C; two to avoid parts from the Iridium 33-Cosmos 2251 collision.

Moving an object out of the way by altering its orbit is one method of diverting a potential crash, but the sheer amount of debris requires constant observation and prediction – by any means necessary.

“Nasa uses a combination of radars, telescopes, and in-situ measurements to monitor, but not track, objects down to sub-millimetre in size,” says Liou.”

 

Is the ‘new’ Space Race and exploration now becoming an Absurdity?

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(“The Cenotaphs of human conquest (Adrian Glass 2016) 12×17 Framed enhanced photographic image printed Ilford Gold Fibre Silk – 310gsm.)

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This world in itself is not reasonable, that is all that can be said. But what is absurd is the confrontation of this irrational and the wild longing for clarity whose call echoes in the human heart.”   Albert Camus

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In recent light of the SpaceX Falcon Heavy lift rocket transporting an Elon Musk Tesla electrical car into space as a strange temperament within the ego sphere of the famed billionaire, that in all its retrospect is a bizarre way of testing the payload capsule of the Falcon rocket.  As the car itself is affixed with a dummy pilot, outfitted in a SpaceX mock spacesuit as it sits motionless holding onto the car’s steering wheel whilst spinning in an wayward trajectory, after being boosted by the Falcon’s main rocket, towards the asteroid belts of Mars and Jupiter.  Avoiding Mars as the intended crash site for Elon Musk’s publicity stunt (so much for ‘Planetary Protection’ protocols), the interplanetary Space race has essentially begun, as most public and private Space companies will now aim, with others not so far behind SpaceX, to develop more powerful and larger rockets which in turn will further increase payload and transport routes.  But, as decreed by media hyped enthusiasts via social media, we are a long way off in mining the asteroid belts that encircle the Earth.  As Science fiction writers, like myself, have played and used the ideas of off-world mining industries as future ventures.  From my perspective this will be a solely robotic enterprise from start to finish.   At the ire of Musk’s dislike or paranoia that artificial intelligence will be the detriment of humanity.  As Space is an extremely hostile environment  to organic life,  in someways a viewpoint that Space exploration Programs, such as SpaceX have not considered as the main hurdle for human exploration into the Solar System.  And by most analyst reports, more so from NASA on a human mission to Mars, it maybe unlikely in the near future.

The Absurdity of  SpaceX launching a car into Space, with the industrialist owner of Tesla claiming that it will orbit the sun for millions of years, is almost pitiful in its overall sentiment of exploring Space as a human achievement, with the inscribed message for Extraterrestrial Life “Made on Earth by humans” imprinted onto the car’s circuit board.   One should not see this as childlike and wondrous in its imagination of the Cosmos, this, as an absurd stunt only cheapens the wonder of the Universe, so it should be seen as immaturity defined.   The car will be destroyed within a year of orbiting the Sun, either by solar radiation destroying its key monocular structure or it slamming into one of multitude of micro-meteors to small/medium size asteroids with circle ominously around the Sun.

The Universe does not care about the egos of Billionaires and/or our overall desire for human exploitation into Space.  In fact the Universe, the Cosmos, does not care if we exist or perish tomorrow.  It holds no value on human life by any consideration.  Our endurance and survival depends on a state of mind within the Universe.  In the sense, we should endure the possibility that we may be alone, sans our imagination, and survival, that we live only within this present point in time.  On the Earth, our home.  In which we should protect from internal and external threats.

If we are to send artifacts into Space, not cars or fake stars, but reminders of those aspects of human endurance and survival.  Then we should urge these Space programs that wish to embark on testing larger rocket systems.  To send an iconic fixture or artifact into the Cosmos of the human race which embraces our strengths.  Not weakness.

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Adrian Glass

(Adrian Glass is an author and artist, his last three books can been seen on Amazon: (Voids of the Elysium, SATRAN KAEVON, CATACLYSMAL )